CHAPTER 9. Liability Limitation 1799.102. (a) No person who in good faith, and not for compensation, renders emergency medical or nonmedical care at the scene of an emergency shall be liable for any civil damages resulting from any act or omission. The scene of an emergency shall not include emergency departments and other places where medical care is usually offered. This subdivision applies only to the medical, law enforcement, and emergency personnel specified in this chapter. (b) (1) It is the intent of the Legislature to encourage other individuals to volunteer, without compensation, to assist others in need during an emergency, while ensuring that those volunteers who provide care or assistance act responsibly. (2) Except for those persons specified in subdivision (a), no person who in good faith, and not for compensation, renders emergency medical or nonmedical care or assistance at the scene of an emergency shall be liable for civil damages resulting from any act or omission other than an act or omission constituting gross negligence or willful or wanton misconduct. The scene of an emergency shall not include emergency departments and other places where medical care is usually offered. This subdivision shall not be construed to alter existing protections from liability for licensed medical or other personnel specified in subdivision (a) or any other law. (c) Nothing in this section shall be construed to change any existing legal duties or obligations, nor does anything in this section in any way affect the provisions in Section 1714.5 of the Civil Code, as proposed to be amended by Senate Bill 39 of the 2009–10 Regular Session of the Legislature. (d) The amendments to this section made by the act adding subdivisions (b) and (c) shall apply exclusively to any legal action filed on or after the effective date of that act. (Amended by Stats. 2009, Ch. 77, Sec. 1. Effective August 6, 2009. Note: Subds. (b) and (c) were added in the amendment by Stats. 2009, Ch. 77.)
1799.103. (a) An employer shall not adopt or enforce a policy prohibiting an employee from voluntarily providing emergency medical services, including, but not limited to, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, in response to a medical emergency, except as provided in subdivisions (b) and (c). (b) Notwithstanding subdivision (a), an employer may adopt and enforce a policy authorizing employees trained in emergency services to provide those services. However, in the event of an emergency, any available employee may voluntarily provide emergency medical services if a trained and authorized employee is not immediately available or is otherwise unable or unwilling to provide emergency medical services.(c) Notwithstanding subdivision (a), an employer may adopt and enforce a policy prohibiting an employee from performing emergency medical services, including, but not limited to, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, on a person who has expressed the desire to forgo resuscitation or other medical interventions through any legally recognized means, including, but not limited to, a do-not-resuscitate order, a Physician Orders for Life Sustaining Treatment form, an advance health care directive, or a legally recognized health care decision maker. (d) This section does not impose any express or implied duty on an employer to train its employees regarding emergency medical services or cardiopulmonary resuscitation. 1799.106. (a) In addition to the provisions of Section 1799.104 of this code, Section 2727.5 of the Business and Professions Code, and Section 1714.2 of the Civil Code, and in order to encourage the provision of emergency medical services by firefighters, police officers or other law enforcement officers, EMT-I, EMT-II, EMT-P, or registered nurses, a firefighter, police officer or other law enforcement officer, EMTI, EMT-II, EMT-P, or registered nurse who renders emergency medical services at the scene of an emergency or during an emergency air or ground ambulance transport shall only be liable in civil damages for acts or omissions performed in a grossly negligent manner or acts or omissions not performed in good faith. A public agency employing such a firefighter, police officer or other law enforcement officer, EMT-I, EMT-II, EMT-P, or registered nurse shall not be liable for civil damages if the firefighter, police officer or other law enforcement officer, EMT-I, EMT-II, EMT-P, or registered nurse is not liable. (b) For purposes of this section, “registered nurse” means a registered nurse trained in emergency medical services and licensed pursuant to Chapter 6 (commencing with Section 2700) of Division 2 of the Business and Professions Code. (Amended by Stats. 2012, Ch. 69, Sec. 2. Effective January 1, 2013.)2395. No licensee, who in good faith renders emergency care at the scene of an emergency, shall be liable for any civil damages as a result of any acts or omissions by such person in rendering the emergency care. “The scene of an emergency” as used in this section shall include, but not be limited to, the emergency rooms of hospitals in the event of a medical disaster. “Medical disaster” means a duly proclaimed state of emergency or local emergency declared pursuant to the California Emergency Services Act (Chapter 7 (commencing with Section 8550) of Division 1 of Title 2 of the Government Code. Acts or omissions exempted from liability pursuant to this section shall include those acts or omissions which occur after the declaration of a medical disaster and those which occurred prior to such declaration but after the commencement of such medical disaster. The immunity granted in this section shall not apply in the event of a willful act or omission. 2395.5.(a) A licensee who serves on an on-call basis to a hospital emergency room, who in good faith renders emergency obstetrical services to a person while serving on-call, shall not be liable for any civil damages as a result of any negligent act or omission by the licensee in rendering the emergency obstetrical services. The immunity granted by this section shall not apply to acts or omissions constituting gross negligence, recklessness, or willful misconduct. (b) The protections of subdivision (a) shall not apply to the licensee in any of the following cases: (1) Consideration in any form was provided to the licensee for serving, or the licensee was required to serve, on an on-call basis to the hospital emergency room. In either event, the protections of subdivision (a) shall not apply unless the hospital expressly, in writing, accepts liability for the licensee’s negligent acts or omissions. (2) The licensee had provided prior medical diagnosis or treatment to the same patient for a condition having a bearing on or relevance to the treatment of the obstetrical condition which required emergency services. (3) Before rendering emergency obstetrical services, the licensee had a contractual obligation or agreement with the patient, another licensee, or a third-party payer on the patient’s behalf to provide obstetrical care for the patient, or the licensee had a reasonable expectation of payment for the emergency services provided to the patient. (c) Except as provided in subdivision (b), nothing in this section shall be construed to affect or modify the liability of the hospital for ordinary or gross negligence. 2396. No licensee, who in good faith upon the request of another person so licensed, renders emergency medical care to a person for medical complication arising from prior care by another person so licensed, shall be liable for any civil damages as a result of any acts or omissions by such licensed person in rendering such emergency medical care. 2397. (a) A licensee shall not be liable for civil damages for injury or death caused in an emergency situation occurring in the licensee’s office or in a hospital on account of a failure to inform a patient of the possible consequences of a medical procedure where the failure to inform is caused by any of the following: (1) The patient was unconscious. (2) The medical procedure was undertaken without the consent of the patient because the licensee reasonably believed that a medical procedure should be undertaken immediately and that there was insufficient time to fully inform the patient. (3) A medical procedure was performed on a person legally incapable of giving consent, and the licensee reasonably believed that a medical procedure should be undertaken immediately and that there was insufficient time to obtain the informed consent of a person authorized to give such consent for the patient. (b) This section is applicable only to actions for damages for injuries or death arising because of a licensee’s failure to inform, and not to actions for damages arising because of a licensee’s negligence in rendering or failing to render treatment. (c) As used in this section: (1) “Hospital” means a licensed general acute care hospital as defined in subdivision (a) of Section 1250 of the Health and Safety Code. (2) “Emergency situation occurring in the licensee’s office” means a situation occurring in an office, other than a hospital, used by a licensee for the examination or treatment of patients, requiring immediate services for alleviation of severe pain, or immediate diagnosis and treatment of unforeseeable medical conditions, which, if not immediately diagnosed and treated, would lead to serious disability or death. (3) “Emergency situation occurring in a hospital” means a situation occurring in a hospital, whether or not it occurs in an emergency room, requiring immediate services for alleviation of severe pain, or immediate diagnosis and treatment of unforeseeable medical conditions, which, if not immediately diagnosed and treated, would lead to serious disability or death. 2398. No licensee, who in good faith and without compensation renders voluntary emergency medical assistance to a participant in a community college or high school athletic event or contest, at the site of the event or contest, or during transportation to a health care facility, for an injury suffered in the course of such event or contest, shall be liable for any civil damages as a result of any acts or omissions by such person in rendering such voluntary medical assistance. The immunity granted by this section shall not apply to acts or omissions constituting gross negligence.Cal. Health & Safety Code 1317.(a) Emergency services and care shall be provided to any person requesting the services or care, or for whom services or care is requested, for any condition in which the person is in danger of loss of life, or serious injury or illness, at any health facility licensed under this chapter that maintains and operates an emergency department to provide emergency services to the public when the health facility has appropriate facilities and qualified personnel available to provide the services or care.(b) In no event shall the provision of emergency services and care be based upon, or affected by, the person’s ethnicity, citizenship, age, preexisting medical condition, insurance status, economic status, ability to pay for medical services, or any other characteristic listed or defined in subdivision (b) or (e) of Section 51 of the Civil Code, except to the extent that a circumstance such as age, sex, preexisting medical condition, or physical or mental disability is medically significant to the provision of appropriate medical care to the patient.(c) Neither the health facility, its employees, nor any physician and surgeon, dentist, clinical psychologist, or podiatrist shall be liable in any action arising out of a refusal to render emergency services or care if the refusal is based on the determination, exercising reasonable care, that the person is not suffering from an emergency medical condition, or that the health facility does not have the appropriate facilities or qualified personnel available to render those services.(d) Emergency services and care shall be rendered without first questioning the patient or any other person as to his or her ability to pay therefor. However, the patient or his or her legally responsible relative or guardian shall execute an agreement to pay therefor or otherwise supply insurance or credit information promptly after the services are rendered.(e) If a health facility subject to this chapter does not maintain an emergency department, its employees shall nevertheless exercise reasonable care to determine whether an emergency exists and shall direct the persons seeking emergency care to a nearby facility that can render the needed services, and shall assist the persons seeking emergency care in obtaining the services, including transportation services, in every way reasonable under the circumstances.(f) No act or omission of any rescue team established by any health facility licensed under this chapter, or operated by the federal or state government, a county, or by the Regents of the University of California, done or omitted while attempting to resuscitate any person who is in immediate danger of loss of life shall impose any liability upon the health facility, the officers, members of the staff, nurses, or employees of the health facility, including, but not limited to, the members of the rescue team, or upon the federal or state government or a county, if good faith is exercised.(g) “Rescue team,” as used in this section, means a special group of physicians and surgeons, nurses, and employees of a health facility who have been trained in cardiopulmonary resuscitation and have been designated by the health facility to attempt, in cases of emergency, to resuscitate persons who are in immediate danger of loss of life.(h) This section shall not relieve a health facility of any duty otherwise imposed by law upon the health facility for the designation and training of members of a rescue team or for the provision or maintenance of equipment to be used by a rescue team.